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Examination findings may be subtle, and an opportunistic approach may be needed with younger or less co-operative children.

When examining an adolescent of the opposite gender, the examiner should consider an attendant (chaperone) present and to perform the assessment with appropriate privacy.

This module covers the approach to examination, starting with when the child is observed playing or walking into the room.

The pGALS (paediatric Gait, Arms, Legs and Spine) basic examination is described, and video links are available to see part or all of the assessment. Links to download the new pGALS App via the Google Play or Apple Store are also provided. 

pREMS (paediatric Regional Examination of the Musculoskeletal System) is also described, which provides a systematic approach to detailed examination of a particular joint, based on the ‘look, feel, move’ principle. Video demonstrations of each component of pREMS are available.

pGALS helps to identify abnormal joints or regions and pREMS enables a more detailed assessment.  Both are important and we would recommend at least pGALS as part of a general assessment. 

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Some parts of pmm India which involve pictures or videos of children, can only be viewed by registered users. Registering also allows you to bookmark favourite pages and track your viewing.

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