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Normal Variants in Musculoskeletal Development

Normal variants refer to normal development of the musculoskeletal system, in particular the lower limbs and are important to know about as they are common concerns for parents.

Normal variants include leg alignment issues, flat feet, knock knees, bow legs, out-toeingin-toeing or tip-toe walking

It is important to understand normal gait and motor milestones and lower limb development to appreciate normal variants and when observations may be considered abnormal, what conditions to consider and when to refer for a specialist opinion.

Often, explanation and reassurance for parents may suffice, but practitioners should be confident in knowing when this is appropriate, and when referral for more specialist assessment may be necessary.

Further information on normal variants is available.

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