Lower Limb Normal Variants
There is a wide variation in lower limb development, and minor [normal] variants, such as flat feet or knock-knees, are a common cause of parental concern. Sometimes they can be confused with indicators of underlying pathology.
Here we describe the common normal variants, indications for concern and when to refer for specialist opinion (usually paediatric orthopaedics)
We include descriptions for flat feet, tip-toe walking, Genu Valgum (knock knees), Genu Varum (bow legs), Out-toeing and In-toeing and Gait (delayed walking)
The photograph below shows mobile flat feet with normal arches on tip toe (these are normal in young children)
The figure below shows the normal development of leg alignment in children at different ages
Further information on normal variants is available