Genu Valgum (Knock Knees)
Knock knees are normal in young children and most resolve by 6 years of age.
Between the ages of 2 and 4 years, a gap of 6 to 7 cm between the medial malleoli (the bone prominences at the ankles) is normal.
Referral is necessary if there is an ankle gap larger than 6-7 cm, pain, asymmetry or if problems persist beyond 5 years of age.
Conditions to exclude are Rickets, Skeletal Dysplasias or Chronic (untreated) Inflammatory Arthritis (picture below).