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Learning Outcomes

History Taking

  • Describe ‘red flags’ symptoms for infection, malignancy or significant systemic disease and the potential of non-accidental injury. 
  • Understand that the history may be vague and the site of pathology may not be clear from the history alone, and that musculoskeletal assessment (e.g. pGALS) is essential within the general assessment.
  • Be aware of normal motor milestones within development and that normal variants occur.
  • Understand the importance of a full pain history (site, character, radiation, aggravating and relieving factors).
  • Recognise features in the history that may distinguish mechanical from inflammatory musculoskeletal pathology.


  • Describe the pGALS assessment as a basic musculoskeletal examination and understanding that positive findings lead to more detailed examination (pREMS).
  • Understand that leg alignment and foot posture changes with age and be aware of and recognise normal variants.
  • Identify clinical features that suggest an inflamed joint.
  • Describe ‘red flags’ and clinical features suggestive of infective musculoskeletal disease, malignancy or non-accidental injury.
  • Understand that normal children have increased joint flexibility compared to adults (hypermobility).
  • Describe Marfan’s and Ehler’s Danlos and their important extra-articular features.
  • Be aware that a neurological examination may be indicated in the context of musculoskeletal presentations (e.g. limp, delayed walking) and be aware of proximal myopathy.
  • Be aware of the clinical features of muscle disease (proximal weakness, gait disturbance, developmental delay and also myasthenia gravis [fatigue on exercise, weakness])
  • Describe the clinical features of muscular dystrophies (Duchenne, Becker)

The learning outcomes for each module within pmm have been compiled into one document within the site resources section for your reference.

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