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Examples of abnormal pGALS

Some examples observed when performing a pGALS examination:


The photograph below shows a 'sausage toe' due to dactylitis (active psoriatic arthritis).

The photograph below shows finger contractures and restricted wrists in untreated polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

The photograph below shows finger flexion contractures in untreated polyarticular JIA. Note the flexed proximal interphalangeal joint and extended distal interphalangeal joint in several fingers - this is called Bouttonniere deformity.

The photograph below shows micrognathia (i.e. an abnormal small mandible) in untreated systemic onset JIA.

 The photograph below shows an abnormal left hindfoot with tenosynovitis and enthesitis. The term enthesitis refers to inflammation at the site of the insertion of a tendon, muscle or fascia; in this case there is enthesitis at the Achilles tendon insertion. There is also tendon sheath swelliing (arrow). 

The photograph below shows enlarged knees and quadriceps muscle wasting.

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